For the for every situation, the questions worried about both face-to-face and online relationship

For the for every situation, the questions worried about both face-to-face and online relationship


In order to assess the sized the newest community of deal with-to-deal with family unit members, the things about Joy Questionnaire Display (Helliwell and you will Huang, 2013) were used: “Everything how many family members do you have?.” Which matter are answered towards a size of just one below 5 family unit members to help you 5 more than 50 nearest and dearest. The question to evaluate the dimensions of online pal networking sites try similar (Helliwell and you will Huang, 2013): “As much as exactly how many family unit members are you experiencing towards Twitter?” although response level try other, between 1 below 50 to 8 more a thousand.

The questions into quality of dating found in brand new European Personal Questionnaire was basically modified to assess top-notch face-to-deal with and online relationships. The questions were: “How many persons lovestruck are you experiencing that have who you can explore intimate and personal issues?” and “Just how many ones individuals was their Fb family?.” Brand new response size ranged from a single (none) so you’re able to seven (10 or maybe more).

A principle components analysis with an oblique rotation was performed on the four friendship items. Examination of the Kaiser–Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO = 0.511) and of the Bartlett’s test of sphericity (? 2 (6) = , p 2 (30) = ; p = 0.001) and Facebook friends’ observed variables (? 2 (49) = ; p = 0.003) are related to each other. Factor scores were used as indexes of friendship in the analyses.


In order to determine health, also the sensed health product will used in all over the world studies (elizabeth.grams., Eriksson et al., 2001 – “How do you rates health typically” having answers on good 5-point measure, ranging from pretty good to help you very bad) the fresh new four items of the fresh new physical health aspect of Condition out-of Fitness Survey SF-thirty six (Ware and Sherbourne, 1992) was in fact provided. An example of all the questions try: “We appear to get sick a tiny much easier than other some body.” These things was in fact replied towards the a great 5-point scale, ranging from 1 surely not the case so you’re able to 5 surely real. The five points exhibited an adequate accuracy (? = 0.72) and the average of your five things are calculated because indicator out of care about-said future health.

Mental health try examined through four situations throughout the SF-36 (Ware and you may Sherbourne, 1992). A good example is “How often perhaps you have experienced extremely nervous within the last cuatro weeks?.” These types of concerns was responded towards an effective 5-point scale, anywhere between never to constantly. Just like the amount of internal consistency of the things that is a good (? = 0.80), the signal off psychological state is actually determined, averaging the newest answers to the four issues.

The assessment of subjective well-being was performed with two items (r = 0.722; p 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (35) = ; p 1 (Figure 1). More specifically, we tested whether bridging and bonding social capital mediated the relationships among face-to-face friendship and health, as the direct pathway between Facebook friends and health proved not to be significant, ? = 0.09, p = 0.192. Age, gender, education, subjective SES, self-esteem, and living alone effects were controlled. Missing data were handled with listwise deletion.

The direct pathway between face-to-face friendship and health was totally mediated by bonding and bridging social capital. For the mediation of bonding, we found significant paths between friendship and bonding, ? = 0.18, t = 5.59, p 2 (6) = , p 2 (64) = ; p 2 (64) = ; p 2 /DF 0.95; CFI > 0.95; RMSEA 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p = 0.039] and close friends [? 2 (30) = ; p = 0.028] than the older participants. The other side of the coin reveals that 9.8% of the respondents claimed to have less than five friends and around 8% affirmed having no close friends at all. Regarding older participants, aged 55 years or above, 8.3% referred to not having anyone to speak to about intimate issues and 9.9% indicated having only one intimate friend.


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